Warlords sind nicht mit „Feldherren“ oder Oberbefehlshabern eines regulären Heeres oder einer Armee gleichzusetzen. Ein Warlord kann seine Position nur. 15 Jahre Einsatz in AfghanistanWarlords mit westlichem Segen. Von Emran Feroz. Podcast abonnieren. Ein Gebäude, das bei einem Gefecht. Die. Warlords hatten also die Wahl, ob sie mit dem Staat zusammenarbeiten. – was für die meisten vielversprechend war, weil es neue Machtressour- cen zu.
Warlords of ErewhonWarlords sind nicht mit „Feldherren“ oder Oberbefehlshabern eines regulären Heeres oder einer Armee gleichzusetzen. Ein Warlord kann seine Position nur. This chapter examines the complicated dynamics between Charles Taylor, the ambitious Liberian warlord and the RUF, the rebel group in Sierra Leone. 15 Jahre Einsatz in AfghanistanWarlords mit westlichem Segen. Von Emran Feroz. Podcast abonnieren. Ein Gebäude, das bei einem Gefecht.
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In modern states the presence of warlords is often seen as an indicator of state weakness or failure. American historian David G. Herrmann noted, "Warlordism is the default condition of humanity.
Economist Stergios Skaperdas views warlordism as a default—albeit inefficient—competitive economic model that emerges in states where state capacity is low, but that innately evolves into an institution governing political order that uses violence or the threat of it to secure its access to " rent "-producing resources.
It may actually have a stabilizing effect on a region. In both cases there is an inherent inefficiency in the model, as "resources are wasted on unproductive arming and fighting.
Charles Tilly , an American political scientist and sociologist, theorized that organized crime can function as a means for war and state making.
Political scientist Jesse Driscoll uses the term "redistribution politics" to classify the bargaining process between warlords and the regime in states where cooperative warlord politics prevails, and when that bargaining leads to accords or informal arrangements concerning the extraction of rent—which can refer to natural resources, territory, labor, revenue or privilege.
In his study of warlordism in Georgia and Tajikistan, Driscoll cites " land reform , property ownership and transfers, privatization in non-transparent closed-bid settings, complex credit swaps cemented via marriages, money laundering , price fixing schemes , and bribery", as principal sources of exchange in redistribution politics.
Noted theorist Max Weber suggested that classic feudalism in pre-modern-state Europe was an example of warlordism, as the state regime was unable to "exercise a monopoly on the use of force within its territory"  and the monarch relied on the commitment of loyal knights and other nobility to mobilize their private armies in support of the crown for specific military campaigns.
As noted French philosopher Alexis de Tocqueville and political scientists such as E. Under the feudal system of Europe, nobility—whether feudal lords, knights, princes or barons—were warlords in that they served as regional leaders who exercised military, economic and political control over subnational territories and maintained private armies to maintain that status.
While their political power to exercise social order, welfare and regional defense within their territory was derived from hereditary rights or edicts from the monarch, their military strength afforded them independence and strength to negotiate for privileges.
Should the feudal lord or other noble withdraw his support from the king, either in rebellion or to form an alliance with a rival kingdom, that feudal lord or noble was now ascribing to the political order of ungoverned warlordism.
Within political science there is a growing body of research and analysis on warlordism that has emerged within weak states that have gained independence as a result of the collapse of empire.
While warlords are commonly viewed as regional leaders who threaten the sovereignty of a state, there are a number of states where the central government functions in collusion with warlords to achieve its goal of exercising its sovereignty over regions that would otherwise fall outside its control.
In such decentralized states, particularly those where armed groups challenge national sovereignty , warlords can serve as useful allies of a central government that is unable to establish a monopoly over the use of force within its national territory.
As political scientist Dr. Ariel Hernandez documented, one example is the Philippines , where successive presidential administrations—at least since Ferdinand Marcos secured power in —have "franchised violence to regional warlords" to counter the inroads of communist insurgents , Islamic rebels and organized criminal gangs.
This has led to the formation of at least 93 "Partisan Armed Groups", armed militias loyal to regional warlords who, in exchange for their loyalty and willingness to use their private armies to quell the threats from these opposition groups, are granted a degree of autonomy within designated regions, the exclusive right to use violence and the right "to profit from the 'economy of violence' that they establish in their own areas".
Warlordism in Afghanistan—another state where the central government is unable to extend political, military or bureaucratic control over large swaths of territories outside the capital—functions cooperatively within the framework of the state, at times.
The warlords, with their established militias, are able to maintain a monopoly of violence within certain territories.
They form coalitions with competing warlords and local tribal leaders to present the central government with a challenge, and often the state will bargain to gain access to resources or " rent ", loyalty from the warlord and peace in the region.
In exchange for peaceful coexistence, the warlord coalitions are granted special status and privileges, including the right to maintain de facto political rule within the agreed-upon territory, exert force to retain their monopoly over violence and extract rent and resources.
In the case of Afghanistan, the state-warlord bargaining sometimes extends beyond these informal accords and elevates to the status of political clientelism , in which the warlords are appointed to formal government positions, such as regional governor; a title which provides them political legitimacy.
It has been shown that during the state-warlord bargaining phase, warlords in Afghanistan have a high motivation to prolong war to create political instability, expose weakness of the central state, prompt regional criticism against the government and continue economic extraction.
In his study of warlordism in Georgia and Tajikistan , political scientist Jesse Driscoll emphasizes how the collapse of the Soviet Union precipitated the entification of militant, independence-seeking nationalist movements within the republics —particularly within the Central Asian and Caucasus regions—resulting in armed conflict and civil war.
Many strongmen warlords had previously served in the Soviet military , police units or intelligence services and had experience operating within highly organized bureaucracies.
These warlords formed well-structured militias that not only established political and economic control over territories, but institutionalized bureaucracies to establish and maintain their monopolies over violence and rent and "incentivizing the behavior of citizens within a particular geographical space".
A truce was reached without any disarmament of militias; instead, the warlord coalitions reached a non-violent "order producing equilibrium",  and eventually agreed upon a warlord-friendly civilian figurehead to assume head-of-state duties to demonstrate the legitimacy as a sovereign state to the rest of the world.
This opened up Georgia and Tajikistan as states eligible to receive international aid , which thereafter became a major source of " rent " for the warlords, providing them with resources to increase their power and influence over these societies.
As Driscoll observed, the "warlords colluded to create a state". One political theory, pioneered by American economist Mancur Olson , posits that warlords can function as stationary bandits.
In some African states, warlord politics can be a product of endowment-rich, extractable resources. Some nations, including Liberia and Sierra Leone, have had stationary bandits who use extraction of resources such as diamonds, cobalt and timber " conflict resources " in order to increase their political power.
They often enforce their right to these resources by claiming to be protecting the people. The result is a political system in which a dominant coalition of warlords strips and distributes valuable assets in exchange for bureaucratic services and security from foreign firms.
Stationary bandits can amass power because of their economic connections with foreign firms. Oftentimes warlords will exert violence on a particular region in order to gain control.
Once in control, these warlords can expropriate the property or resources from the people and land and redistribute the riches in exchange for monetary value.
When people live in a particular region dominated by a warlord, they can choose to flee or live within the political structure the warlords have created.
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He was closely associated with Charles Koen, and often arrested. Louis which sponsored summer music concerts. There are few references to the War Lords after that, although in one late press release, Charles Jeffries stated that membership had been opened to whites.
The War Lord's transition to mixed race membership lead to other endeavors and the formation of Warlords MC Motorcycle Club , the nation's first interracial 3 piece patch MC.
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